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          訪問人數: 16929094

          把優質大蘋果栽培區 向北推移200公里——記沈陽農業大學園藝學院教授呂德國

          【字號 日期:2019-05-30 10:39:01

            “昨天的雨,咋樣?”

            “好!”

            “真是及時雨啊!這個時候不下,我們一般也要灌一場水,這樣可使果實高樁,品質好,賣相好。”

            5月28日9時,沈陽康平縣方家屯鎮的一個小會議室,80多位果農聚在一起。驅車兩小時趕到的沈陽農業大學園藝學院教授呂德國一落座,就跟大家“打成一片”。看似嘮家常,卻很自然地將鄉親們引進他要講的課——現代蘋果園水分管理技術。

            “水果、水果,栽了樹就要澆水。什么時候澆?滴灌、溝灌,還是漫灌?”呂德國用一個小時講解了果園的水肥管理技術,并回答了果農的問題。最后,他還不忘囑咐:“看天氣,今年是豐收年,一定要好好管理,多追一兩次肥。”

            講完課,呂德國來到東小房身村于光遠家的50畝“寒富”蘋果園,頂著烈日現場指導。“這個得摘掉”,他一邊掐掉芽尖,一邊教果農如何摘心。發生腐爛病怎么辦,生草制的園子如何施肥,他一一耐心講解。

            這樣的培訓,一年有60多場。作為沈陽農業大學果樹栽培與生理生態創新團隊帶頭人,呂德國和團隊成員用了20年時間,在全省各類氣候區建起214處寒富蘋果試驗示范園,將“寒富”由幾萬畝推廣到如今的170余萬畝,成為國際上該類氣候區域唯一大面積栽培的優質大果品種,也是我國自主選育的300余個蘋果品種中栽培面積最大、經濟效益最高的品種。

            過去,遼寧遼陽以北是不產蘋果的。果樹學界曾有定論:1月份平均氣溫–10℃是優質蘋果栽培溫度條件極限。低于這個溫度,蘋果樹無法安全過冬。而沈陽農業大學的專家經多年研究,選育出抗寒新品種“寒富”。

            在引種試栽初期,因缺乏配套栽培技術,不但沒形成產業,還差點慘遭淘汰。從1999年起,呂德國帶領團隊圍繞“寒富”栽培進行研究,構建了適宜冷涼地區產業化應用的現代栽培制度。先后起草制定遼寧省地方標準5項,農業部主持技術規程3項,主持備案果樹新品種4個,授權專利7項,其主持完成的成果“寒富蘋果優質高效生產技術集成研究與應用”2015年獲遼寧省科技進步一等獎。在呂德國等專家的努力下,我國優質大蘋果栽培區域向北推移了200公里。

            “用我們的技術栽培果樹比較簡單,果農半個小時就能學會,在沒栽過蘋果的地區反而推廣更快。”呂德國表示,按照這套技術要領去做,很容易將果園管好。

            針對遼寧蘋果新區果樹從業人員現狀,呂德國一年12個月在各地開展技術培訓與推廣,先后培訓果農60萬人次,解決了100余萬農村人口就業問題,創造經濟效益100多億元,為遼寧蘋果產業發展作出重大貢獻。

            教農民,帶學生。呂德國培養果樹學博士后4人、博士29人、碩士79人,搭建了良好的果樹專業人才梯隊。其參與編撰的《果樹栽培學總論》,作為全國高等農林院校園藝專業教材廣泛應用;編著的《寒富蘋果標準化生產技術規程圖冊》,成為一線生產人員的枕邊書。

            多項成果,讓呂德國收獲“遼寧省新世紀百千萬人才工程”百人層次人才、遼寧省教學名師、“遼寧省優秀科技創新帶頭人”眾多榮譽稱號。但他卻輕描淡寫地說:“我就是一名普通教師,做了該做的事。”

            來源:遼寧日報

          • 版權所有:遼寧省教育廳 地址:遼寧省沈陽市皇姑區崇山東路46-1號 郵編:110032
          • 研發與技術支持:遼寧省教育廳教育信息中心 遼ICP備10200702號-2號
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